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Therefore, it is advantageous to design for low SER when manufacturing a system in high-volume or requiring extremely high reliability. IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability. 5 (3): 449–451. Jain AK, Klare B, Park U. Klare B, Burge MJ, Klontz JC, Vorder Bruegge RW, Jain Anil K. http://unordic.com/software-error/software-error-in-cgi.html

A pornographic model poses for still photographs. Automated analysis of craniofacial morphology using magnetic resonance images. Wilmer JB, Germine L, Chabris CF, Chatterjee G, Williams M, Loken E, et al. Benefits of Chipkill-Correct ECC for PC Server Main Memory - A 1997 discussion of SDRAM reliability - some interesting information on "soft errors" from cosmic rays, especially with respect to Error-correcting http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0026271481902468

doi: 10.1080/00140137908924617 View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 42. On half of trials an image of the target face was present in the array and on the other half of trials the target was absent from the array, although this In this technique, three identical copies of a circuit compute on the same data in parallel and outputs are fed into majority voting logic, returning the value that occurred in at

  1. In the most recent international benchmarking test of leading commercial face identification systems, this algorithm correctly returned a matching image in the top eight ranked matches in approximately 90% of cases,
  2. Thermal neutrons[edit] Neutrons that have lost kinetic energy until they are in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings are an important cause of soft errors for some circuits.
  3. Conventional memory layout usually places one bit of many different correction words adjacent on a chip.
  4. Methodology Survey a large company (Raytheon, AT&T, IBM, Motorola, etc) Determine defect rate (survey, interview, or automated collection) Determine tools used to catch errors (testing, code review etc) Methodology (cont'd) Ask
  5. doi: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2013.01.008 View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 41.
  6. Indeed, in modern devices, cosmic rays may be the predominant cause.
  7. Relationship between professional experience and face matching accuracy.To examine whether experience performing the FR candidate list task was predictive of accuracy, we correlated overall accuracy on the task with number of

You can download the paper by clicking the button above.GET pdf ×CloseLog InLog InwithFacebookLog InwithGoogleorEmail:Password:Remember me on this computerorreset passwordEnter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you Error-prone performance is also observed in people who perform face matching as part of their daily work. We conclude that human performance curtails accuracy of face recognition systems–potentially reducing benchmark estimates by 50% in operational settings. MTBF is usually given in years of device operation; to put it into perspective, one FIT equals to approximately 1,000,000,000/ (24× 365.25)= 114,077 times more than one-year MTBF.

or its licensors or contributors. The effect is fairly small in any case resulting in a ±7% modulation of the energetic neutron flux in New York City. Forensic confirmation bias: the case of facial image comparison. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26465631 J Forensic Sci. 2015;60: 331–340.

Traditionally, DRAM has had the most attention in the quest to reduce, or work-around soft errors, due to the fact that DRAM has comprised the majority-share of susceptible device surface area For the common reference location of 40.7°N, 74°W at sea level (New York City, NY, USA) the flux is approximately 14 neutrons/cm2/hour. In the context of circuit operation, this erroneous output value may be considered a soft error event. Verifying whether a passport applicant is present in the FR candidate list is one of many tasks that make up the passport eligibility checking process.

For comparison, the count rate of a typical shoe's sole is between 0.1 and 10 cph/cm2. https://www.cs.umd.edu/users/basili/qip/sld044.htm Neutrons are uncharged and cannot disturb a circuit on their own, but undergo neutron capture by the nucleus of an atom in a chip. Burton AM, White D, McNeill A. To account for this, and consistent with recent work [17, 23] we suggest that face aging caused poorer performance compared to similar tasks where images were taken on the same day

Each participant completed a total of 306 trials including 6 practice trials. http://unordic.com/software-error/software-error-categorization.html However, in general, these sources represent a small contribution to the overall soft error rate when compared to radiation effects. However, it is possible that in workplaces where staff routinely use this software, performance is improved through experience and training. Results Overall percent correct was 45.1% (SD = 11.7%) for adult target images, 41.1% (SD = 11.7%) for adolescent target images and 39.0% (SD = 10.6%) for child target images.

So far this has not been incorporated into reliability modeling.Software reliability is defined as the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment. Trials were presented in three blocks of 60 trials with a short break provided between blocks, and the experiment lasted approximately forty minutes. Detecting soft errors[edit] There has been work addressing soft errors in processor and memory resources using both hardware and software techniques. http://unordic.com/software-error/software-error.html Given the very low overall accuracy in this test, it becomes important to ask whether these levels of performance are also observed in people who use FR software in their daily

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139827.s002(PDF) Acknowledgments This research was supported by Australian Research Council grants to Kemp and White (LP110100448, LP130100702). ISSN0018-9499. ^ Baumann, R.; Hossain, T.; Murata, S.; Kitagawa, H. (1995). "Boron compounds as a dominant source of alpha particles in semiconductor devices": 297–302. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that the FR algorithm selected more confusable foils when searching for Caucasian targets compared to non-Caucasian targets.

Further reading[edit] Ziegler, J.

Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DW JD AS. Trials were presented in three blocks of 100 trials with a short break provided between blocks. Kemp x Published: October 14, 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139827 Article Authors Metrics Comments Related Content Reader Comments (0) Media Coverage Figures Figures AbstractIn recent years, wide deployment of automatic face recognition systems has The Role of the Human Operator in Image-Based Airport Security Technologies.

The authors thank Manuela Tan for help collecting data in Experiment 1 and staff at the Australian Passport Office and Westbourne Group for assistance implementing experimental protocol and recruiting participants. Subsequent studies have replicated this basic finding across a variety of stimulus sets and task formats [13–16]. Participants were tested individually on laptop computers and the experiment was implemented in Psychtoolbox for Matlab [26]. have a peek at these guys Whilst guidelines for training in facial comparison do exist [19, 39, 40], these have not yet been subject to empirical validation.

Despite these constraints, error rates were substantially higher than in previous studies of face matching performance using one-in-ten face matching arrays [12]. More broadly, face recognition software developers, user experience designers and system administrators should give careful consideration to the abilities of human operators when designing face recognition systems. Error bars denote standard error.Error Rates in Users of Automatic Face Recognition SoftwarePLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139827.Fig 4Scatterplot showing non-significant correlation between Passport Officers' employment duration and overall face matching accuracy.The graph does All images were presented at size 213 by 268 pixels on a 15” monitor with resolution 1920 by 1080 with each image subtending a visual angle of approximately 3 degrees (see

In the lower levels of the atmosphere, the flux increases by a factor of about 2.2 for every 1000m (1.3 for every 1000ft) increase in altitude above sea level. Other locations are similarly affected.[citation needed] Energetic neutrons produced by cosmic rays may lose most of their kinetic energy and reach thermal equilibrium with their surroundings as they are scattered by Accuracy was notably poorer than in previous studies of unfamiliar face matching: participants made over 50% errors for adult target faces, and over 60% when matching images of children. It then falls to the human operator to review this candidate list and check for the presence or absence of matching identities [3, 4, 9].

Dunn, Affiliation School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ⨯ Alexandra C. Soft errors can occur on transmission lines, in digital logic, analog circuits, magnetic storage, and elsewhere, but are most commonly known in semiconductor storage. In press. The sun does not generally produce cosmic ray particles with energy above 1GeV that are capable of penetrating to the Earth's upper atmosphere and creating particle showers, so the changes in

Loading metrics Open Access Peer-reviewed Research Article Error Rates in Users of Automatic Face Recognition Software David White , * E-mail: [email protected] Affiliation School of Psychology, The University of New South This search returns ‘candidate lists’ of images with highest ranked similarity to the target according to a scoring metric computed by state-of-the-art FR software.