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Soft Error Digital Circuits
Takahisa (Osaka University), 2001. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.RELX Group Recommended articles No articles found. Usually, only one cell of a memory is affected, although high energy events can cause a multi-cell upset. This paper presents a low area and zero-delay overhead method to protect digital circuits’ combinational parts against particles strike. http://unordic.com/soft-error/soft-error-rate-analysis-for-sequential-circuits.html
This counterintuitive result occurs for two reasons. Generated Fri, 28 Oct 2016 01:00:48 GMT by s_wx1199 (squid/3.5.20) The concept of triple modular redundancy (TMR) can be employed to ensure very high soft-error reliability in logic circuits. Several techniques have been presented to protect combinational logic and reduce the overall circuit Soft Error Rate (SER). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_error
Soft Error Rate
Concludes that 1000–5000 FIT per Mbit (0.2–1 error per day per Gbyte) is a typical DRAM soft error rate. For more information, visit the cookies page.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Citing articles (0) This article has not been cited. IEEE.
- doi:10.1109/RELPHY.1995.513695. ^ Wilkinson, J.D.; Bounds, C.; Brown, T.; Gerbi, B.J.; Peltier, J. (2005). "Cancer-radiotherapy equipment as a cause of soft errors in electronic equipment".
- For instance, the erroneous data could be overwritten before use, masked in subsequent logic operations, or simply never be used.
- Although the primary particle of the cosmic ray does not generally reach the Earth's surface, it creates a shower of energetic secondary particles.
- The computer tries to interpret the noise as a data bit, which can cause errors in addressing or processing program code.
Ziegler led a program of work at IBM which culminated in the publication of a number of papers (Ziegler and Lanford, 1979) demonstrating that cosmic rays also could cause soft errors. The system returned: (22) Invalid argument The remote host or network may be down. ISSN0163-5964. ^ Mukherjee, Shubhendu S.; Kontz, Michael; Reinhardt, Steven K. (2002). "Detailed design and evaluation of redundant multithreading alternatives". Cosmic Ray Bit Flip IBM. 40 (1): 19–40.
Tsuchiya, H. Soft errors in combinational logic The three natural masking effects in combinational logic that determine whether a single event upset (SEU) will propagate to become a soft error are electrical masking, In this way, the failure of one circuit due to soft error is discarded assuming the other two circuits operated correctly. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1465256/ Nagai, K.
A 2011 Black Hat paper discusses the real-life security implications of such bit-flips in the Internet's DNS system. Difference Between Soft Error And Hard Error Also, in safety- or cost-critical applications where the cost of system failure far outweighs the cost of the system itself, a 1% chance of soft error failure per lifetime may be It is extremely hard to maintain the material purity needed. These often include the use of redundant circuitry or computation of data, and typically come at the cost of circuit area, decreased performance, and/or higher power consumption.
Soft Error Vs Hard Error
Radiation hardening is often accomplished by increasing the size of transistors who share a drain/source region at the node. https://www.date-conference.com/proceedings-archive/PAPERS/2011/DATE11/PDFFILES/02.5_4.PDF Often, however, this is limited by the need to reduce device size and voltage, to increase operating speed and to reduce power dissipation. Soft Error Rate Tools and models that can predict which nodes are most vulnerable are the subject of past and current research in the area of soft errors. Soft Error Rate Calculation For the common reference location of 40.7°N, 74°W at sea level (New York City, NY, USA) the flux is approximately 14 neutrons/cm2/hour.
The system returned: (22) Invalid argument The remote host or network may be down. have a peek at these guys Thus, the importance of soft errors increases as chip technology advances. Your cache administrator is webmaster. ISSN1530-4388. ^ Franco, L., Gómez, F., Iglesias, A., Pardo, J., Pazos, A., Pena, J., Zapata, M., SEUs on commercial SRAM induced by low energy neutrons produced at a clinical linac facility, Bit Flip Memory Error
James F. Very low decay rates are needed to avoid excess soft errors, and chip companies have occasionally suffered problems with contamination ever since. If erroneous data does not affect the output of a program, it is considered to be an example of microarchitectural masking. check over here Controlling alpha particle emission rates for critical packaging materials to less than a level of 0.001 counts per hour per cm2 (cph/cm2) is required for reliable performance of most circuits.
Because the alpha particle contains a positive charge and kinetic energy, the particle can hit a memory cell and cause the cell to change state to a different value. Dram Soft Error Rate The simulation results show the SER reduction of about 40% by applying the proposed method to ISCAS’89 benchmark circuits while imposing no delay overhead and 5% area overhead.KeywordsSoft errors; Single event Since a logic circuit contains many nodes that may be struck, and each node may be of unique capacitance and distance from output, Qcrit is typically characterized on a per-node basis.
The effect is fairly small in any case resulting in a ±7% modulation of the energetic neutron flux in New York City.
In the context of circuit operation, this erroneous output value may be considered a soft error event. in your book, Caves of Steel, published in the 1950s, you use an alpha particle emitter to 'murder' one of the robots in the story, by destroying ('randomizing') its positronic brain. Soft errors are caused by the high level of 10B in this critical lower layer of some older integrated circuit processes. Soft Errors In Advanced Computer Systems At the Earth's surface approximately 95% of the particles capable of causing soft errors are energetic neutrons with the remainder composed of protons and pions. IBM estimated in 1996 that one
IEEE. The thermal neutron flux from sources other than cosmic-ray showers may still be noticeable in an underground location and an important contributor to soft errors for some circuits. Chip-level soft errors occur when particles hit the chip, e.g., when the radioactive atoms in the chip's material decay and release alpha particles into the chip. this content Unfortunately, a higher Qcrit also means a slower logic gate and a higher power dissipation.
So, even a multi-cell upset leads to only a number of separate single-bit upsets in multiple correction words, rather than a multi-bit upset in a single correction word. Neutrons are uncharged and cannot disturb a circuit on their own, but undergo neutron capture by the nucleus of an atom in a chip. Tel.: +98 9183668185.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. This is in contrast to package decay induced soft errors, which do not change with location. As chip density increases, Intel expects the errors caused by cosmic rays to increase and
Retrieved 2015-01-30. ^ Kyungbae Park; Sanghyeon Baeg; ShiJie Wen; Richard Wong (October 2014). "Active-Precharge Hammering on a Row Induced Failure in DDR3 SDRAMs under 3xnm Technology". Institutional Sign In By Topic Aerospace Bioengineering Communication, Networking & Broadcasting Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems Computing & Processing Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas Engineering Profession Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics General Some tests conclude that the isolation of DRAM memory cells can be circumvented by unintended side effects of specially crafted accesses to adjacent cells. Please try the request again.
After observing a soft error, there is no implication that the system is any less reliable than before. Naturally occurring boron is 20% 10B with the remainder the 11B isotope. Download PDFs Help Help Skip to Main Content IEEE.org IEEE Xplore Digital Library IEEE-SA IEEE Spectrum More Sites Cart(0) Create Account Personal Sign In Personal Sign In Username Password Sign In Further, the increase in the solar flux during an active sun period does have the effect of reshaping the Earth's magnetic field providing some additional shielding against higher energy cosmic rays,
doi:10.1145/342001.339652. Neutrons are produced during high energy cancer radiation therapy using photon beam energies above 10MeV. Package radioactive decay usually causes a soft error by alpha particle emission. A soft error will not damage a system's hardware; the only damage is to the data that is being processed.
Ars Technica. Soft error From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with software error. Mukherjee, S, "Computer Glitches from Soft Errors: A Problem with Multiple Solutions," Microprocessor Report, May 19, 2008.