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Soft Error Combinational Logic
Very low decay rates are needed to avoid excess soft errors, and chip companies have occasionally suffered problems with contamination ever since. The system returned: (22) Invalid argument The remote host or network may be down. Tools and models that can predict which nodes are most vulnerable are the subject of past and current research in the area of soft errors. If the data is rewritten, the circuit will work perfectly again. check over here
The positively charged alpha particle travels through the semiconductor and disturbs the distribution of electrons there. This process may result in the production of charged secondaries, such as alpha particles and oxygen nuclei, which can then cause soft errors. Cosmic ray flux depends on altitude. Since a logic circuit contains many nodes that may be struck, and each node may be of unique capacitance and distance from output, Qcrit is typically characterized on a per-node basis. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/43/4100744/04100761.pdf
our millions of dollars of research, culminating in several international awards for the most important scientific contribution in the field of reliability of semiconductor devices in 1978 and 1979, was predicted If detected, a soft error may be corrected by rewriting correct data in place of erroneous data. A. (1979). "Effect of Cosmic Rays on Computer Memories". The concept of triple modular redundancy (TMR) can be employed to ensure very high soft-error reliability in logic circuits.
- So, an error correcting code needs only to cope with a single bit in error in each correction word in order to cope with all likely soft errors.
- This reduces the range of particle energies to which the logic value of the node can be upset.
In critical designs, depleted boron—consisting almost entirely of boron-11—is used, to avoid this effect and therefore to reduce the soft error rate. Based on these models, we propose and validate the transient pulse generation model and propagation model for soft error rate analysis. The susceptibility of devices to upsets is described in the industry using the JEDEC JESD-89 standard. The computer tries to interpret the noise as a data bit, which can cause errors in addressing or processing program code.
Register now for a free account in order to: Sign in to various IEEE sites with a single account Manage your membership Get member discounts Personalize your experience Manage your profile Another common concept to correct soft errors in logic circuits is temporal (or time) redundancy, in which one circuit operates on the same data multiple times and compares subsequent evaluations for Institutional Sign In By Topic Aerospace Bioengineering Communication, Networking & Broadcasting Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems Computing & Processing Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas Engineering Profession Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics General http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4091978/4091979/04092040.pdf This involves increasing the capacitance at selected circuit nodes in order to increase its effective Qcrit value.
Retrieved 2015-03-10. ^ Dan Goodin (2015-03-10). "Cutting-edge hack gives super user status by exploiting DRAM weakness". Unfortunately, a higher Qcrit also means a slower logic gate and a higher power dissipation. The design of error detection and correction circuits is helped by the fact that soft errors usually are localised to a very small area of a chip. Highly reliable systems use error correction to correct soft errors on the fly.
MTBF is usually given in years of device operation; to put it into perspective, one FIT equals to approximately 1,000,000,000/ (24× 365.25)= 114,077 times more than one-year MTBF. https://www.computer.org/csdl/trans/tq/2011/01/ttq2011010137.pdf If erroneous data does not affect the output of a program, it is considered to be an example of microarchitectural masking. Generated Fri, 28 Oct 2016 09:07:37 GMT by s_fl369 (squid/3.5.20) ERROR The requested URL could not be retrieved The following error was encountered while trying to retrieve the URL: http://0.0.0.9/ Connection Although the primary particle of the cosmic ray does not generally reach the Earth's surface, it creates a shower of energetic secondary particles.
A soft error will not damage a system's hardware; the only damage is to the data that is being processed. http://unordic.com/soft-error/soft-error-mitigation.html The sun does not generally produce cosmic ray particles with energy above 1GeV that are capable of penetrating to the Earth's upper atmosphere and creating particle showers, so the changes in Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Soft errors involve changes to data—the electrons in a storage circuit, for example—but not changes to the physical circuit itself, the atoms.
SELSE Workshop Website - Website for the workshop on the System Effects of Logic Soft Errors Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Soft_error&oldid=708568088" Categories: Computer memoryData qualityDigital electronicsHidden categories: Pages using citations with accessdate and Your cache administrator is webmaster. F.; Lanford, W. this content Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.
There are two types of soft errors, chip-level soft error and system-level soft error. However, from a microarchitectural-level standpoint, the affected result may not change the output of the currently-executing program. Causes of soft errors Alpha particles from package decay Soft errors became widely known with the introduction of dynamic RAM in the 1970s.
For applications in medical electronic devices this soft error mechanism may be extremely important.
IEEE. These often include the use of redundant circuitry or computation of data, and typically come at the cost of circuit area, decreased performance, and/or higher power consumption. In sequential logic such as latches and RAM, even this transient upset can become stored for an indefinite time, to be read out later. The pulse generated by our pulse generation model matches well with that of HSPICE simulation, and the pulse propagation model provides nearly one order of magnitude improvement in accuracy over the
ece.cmu.edu. In this paper, we use table lookup MOSFET models to accurately capture the nonlinear properties of submicron MOS transistors. The system returned: (22) Invalid argument The remote host or network may be down. have a peek at these guys Tsuchiya, H.
Thermal neutrons are also produced by environmental radiation sources such as the decay of naturally occurring uranium or thorium. Kobayashi, K. Further reading Ziegler, J. If all three masking effects fail to occur, the propagated pulse becomes latched and the output of the logic circuit will be an erroneous value.
Often, however, this is limited by the need to reduce device size and voltage, to increase operating speed and to reduce power dissipation. Your cache administrator is webmaster. Soft error rate Soft error rate (SER) is the rate at which a device or system encounters or is predicted to encounter soft errors. While many electronic systems have an MTBF that exceeds the expected lifetime of the circuit, the SER may still be unacceptable to the manufacturer or customer.
This counterintuitive result occurs for two reasons. So, even a multi-cell upset leads to only a number of separate single-bit upsets in multiple correction words, rather than a multi-bit upset in a single correction word. doi:10.1145/545214.545226.